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The Gettysburg Address

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The Gettysburg Address

ALincoln
d

Stop and Think! Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Literary Device

Stop and Think! Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. Resources We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come Resources Literary Device to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. Literary Device It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.

But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate—we can not consecrate—we can not hallow—this ground. Resources Literary Device The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. Literary Device The Stop and Think! world will little note , nor long remember what we say here, Literary Device but it can never forget what they did here. Resources Literary Device Literary Device It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the great unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated Resources Literary Device to the great task remaining before usthat from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion Literary Device that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vainthat this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom Literary Device —and that government of the people, Resources Literary Device by the people, for the people, Literary Device Literary Device shall not perish from the earth. Literary Device Stop and Think! Resources Resources

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Create your own summary. Use the Key Points list below or use the Text Help toolbar to highlight and collect key points you choose from the text. Then write a summary in your own words. You could also try sketching your summary.

Key Points

1. Lincoln reminds the audience of the founding principles of the United States.

2. Lincoln describes the war as a test of whether democracy will survive.

3. Lincoln acknowledges the occasion as the dedication of a cemetery.

4. Lincoln argues that the soldier's brave fighting has already sanctified the cemetery.

5. Lincoln declares that the living must devote themselves to the cause for which the dead soldiers fought.

6. Lincoln reminds the audience that that cause is the survival of the democratic nation.

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Monty's Thoughts

I read the background information and learned about the battle and the military cemetery at Gettysburg. Then, when I saw this opening sentence, it seemed like the founding principles of the United States were also an important part of what Lincoln planned to talk about.



Monty's Response

I predict Lincoln will talk about the meaning of the battle and how it relates to the country's founding principles.

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Hali's Thoughts

When want I make a prediction, I think about what I know about background and context, and I try to connect that to the important points in the text.



Hali's Response

I predict Lincoln will discuss the nation and its founding principles within the context of the important Civil War battle that took place at Gettysburg.

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Pedro's Self Check

Ask yourself these questions to help yourself make a good prediction:

Does your prediction connect what you know with information in the text or image?

Did you make an educated guess, not a 'wild' guess?

Do your predictions change as you read more and get more information that doesn't match your earlier prediction?

Did you predict what might happen (a 'crystal ball' kind of prediction) OR what the text or image is preparing you for ('predicting the moves of the text')?

Did you use keywords in the text structure to help yourself make predictions? (Example: If the text contains the words, 'for instance,' you can expect to find examples.)

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Monty's Thoughts

I read the background information and learned about the battle and the military cemetery at Gettysburg. Then, when I saw this opening sentence, it seemed like the founding principles of the United States were also an important part of what Lincoln planned to talk about.

Close Window

Hali's Thoughts

When want I make a prediction, I think about what I know about background and context, and I try to connect that to the important points in the text.

Close Window


Pedro's Self Check

Ask yourself these questions to help yourself make a good prediction:

Does your prediction connect what you know with information in the text or image?

Did you make an educated guess, not a 'wild' guess?

Do your predictions change as you read more and get more information that doesn't match your earlier prediction?

Did you predict what might happen (a 'crystal ball' kind of prediction) OR what the text or image is preparing you for ('predicting the moves of the text')?

Did you use keywords in the text structure to help yourself make predictions? (Example: If the text contains the words, 'for instance,' you can expect to find examples.)

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Monty's Thoughts

My prediction always starts with a hypothesis. To make my hypothesis more solid, I collect relevant information from what I have read. As I gather supporting examples and evidence, the prediction seems to be more convincing.

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Hali's Thoughts

I enjoy asking questions about a story or text. I like to use the highlight tool to identify key information so that I know what I want to ask about.

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Monty's Thoughts

When I prepared to visualize this moment, I thought about the background information I'd read and the photos I'd found online. That way, I could add some details in my mind that weren't in the text of Lincoln's speech.



Monty's Response

I chose to put myself into the moment as a member of the audience. I imagined standing in a close-packed crowd of people and hearing Lincoln speak from the platform in the distance. I imagined the chill in the air and the sound of Lincoln's voice as he spoke these words.

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Hali's Thoughts

When I visualize, I like to imagine the setting first. Then I put in the specific sights and sounds. I always keep in mind the overall mood.



Hali's Response

I pictured the gentle hills of the Gettysburg battlefield. On the field, I imagined a large and somber crowd of people standing in front of President Lincoln, listening to his words and thinking about the soldiers who died.

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Pedro's Self Check

Ask yourself these questions about your visualization:

Am I seeing what is most important in the story?

Can I close my eyes and see a vivid movie of what is happening?

Does my visualization help me understand the characters' feelings or an important event in the plot?

Can I see in my mind the place or scene described?

Could I draw or find a picture of what I am imagining?

Can I see, hear, or smell what the author is describing?

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Monty's Thoughts

When I prepared to visualize this moment, I thought about the background information I'd read and the photos I'd found online. That way, I could add some details in my mind that weren't in the text of Lincoln's speech.

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Hali's Thoughts

When I visualize, I like to imagine the setting first. Then I put in the specific sights and sounds. I always keep in mind the overall mood.

Close Window


Pedro's Self Check

Ask yourself these questions about your visualization:

Am I seeing what is most important in the story?

Can I close my eyes and see a vivid movie of what is happening?

Does my visualization help me understand the characters' feelings or an important event in the plot?

Can I see in my mind the place or scene described?

Could I draw or find a picture of what I am imagining?

Can I see, hear, or smell what the author is describing?

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Monty's Thoughts

Visualization works for me because I like to draw. Sometimes I sketch out a scene and add speech balloons to capture what is happening.

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Hali's Thoughts

I find summaries especially useful at the end of a key episode, chapter or passage. In television series, short highlights of the previous episode are usually shown before the current episode is played. This reminds viewers of what happened before. In the same way, my short summaries give me a context for what happens next.

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Monty's Thoughts

I wanted to ask about the last line of the speech, because it seemed important. The idea of a government run by the people and devoted to the people seems central to Lincoln's message.



Monty's Response

When I thought about the phrase 'government of the people,' I realized it refers to democracy. I noticed Lincoln said earlier that the Civil War was 'testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived' can survive. I think Lincoln means the war is about saving not just the United States but democracy in general.

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Hali's Thoughts

I like to ask questions that help me understand the author's reasons for making certain statements.



Hali's Response

I wondered why Lincoln said his speech would be forgotten. I noticed he emphasized the difference between words and actions, so maybe he meant to urge the people to take action after they left the ceremony, rather than only paying tribute to the soldiers.

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Pedro's Self Check

Do your questions—

Ask about something important, not trivial?

Get to the point?

Often start with a question word (who, what, when, why, how)?

Focus on parts of the text or illustrations?

Require a substantive answer, not just a 'yes or no'?

Ask about character, setting, key events, lessons learned, objectivity, bias, or perspective?

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Monty's Thoughts

I wanted to ask about the last line of the speech, because it seemed important. The idea of a government run by the people and devoted to the people seems central to Lincoln's message.

Close Window

Hali's Thoughts

I like to ask questions that help me understand the author's reasons for making certain statements.

Close Window


Pedro's Self Check

Do your questions—

Ask about something important, not trivial?

Get to the point?

Often start with a question word (who, what, when, why, how)?

Focus on parts of the text or illustrations?

Require a substantive answer, not just a 'yes or no'?

Ask about character, setting, key events, lessons learned, objectivity, bias, or perspective?

Close Window

Monty's Thoughts

When I ask myself questions about a text, I find I discover more about what the author is trying to convey. I often start my questions with the words 'who,' 'what,' 'when,' 'why,' and 'how.'

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Hali's Thoughts

When I read about historical events, I like to use Google image search to find images from the time. That way, I can visualize more clearly what I'm reading about.

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Monty's Thoughts

The idea of saving the United States' democracy seems to play an important role in this speech. I wanted to make sure my summary gave a clear sense of how the fighting at Gettysburg fits in with the larger ideas Lincoln talks about.



Monty's Response

Lincoln's speech connects to the founding principles of the United States. He says the Civil War is a struggle for the survival of the democratic nation, and that the living must carry out the mission of those who died.

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Hali's Thoughts

When I think about summarizing a short text, I read through it again and try to decide which points are most important in terms of what the author wants to convey.



Hali's Response

Lincoln makes the case that the Civil War is about saving both the United States and democracy itself. He praises the soldiers who fought at Gettysburg, and says their actions have consecrated the cemetery more than this ceremony ever could. Lincoln says the living must dedicate themselves to the soldiers' cause: saving the democratic nation.

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Pedro's Self Check

To check your summary, ask yourself if your summary—

Captures the main ideas and key information.

Has the right amount of detail (not too much, not too little).

Combines several ideas or facts into one statement.

Paraphrases, or explains in your own words.

Includes information from text and images.

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Monty's Thoughts

The idea of saving the United States' democracy seems to play an important role in this speech. I wanted to make sure my summary gave a clear sense of how the fighting at Gettysburg fits in with the larger ideas Lincoln talks about.

Close Window

Hali's Thoughts

When I think about summarizing a short text, I read through it again and try to decide which points are most important in terms of what the author wants to convey.

Close Window


Pedro's Self Check

To check your summary, ask yourself if your summary—

Captures the main ideas and key information.

Has the right amount of detail (not too much, not too little).

Combines several ideas or facts into one statement.

Paraphrases, or explains in your own words.

Includes information from text and images.

Close Window

Monty's Thoughts

When I read a complicated text, I like to break it into smaller pieces and write a summary for each piece. The pieces might be chapters, paragraphs or even lines in a poem. When I put all of the summaries together, it helps me understand the overall picture more clearly.

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Hali's Thoughts

When I finish reading, I like to ask myself this question: 'What is the main thing the author has tried to convey?' When I come up with an answer, it helps me to understand and remember what I read.