Just as a woodworker uses many tools and techniques to craft a piece of furniture, a skilled author uses tools and techniques of language and storytelling to craft a piece of writing. We have organized author's craft into two categories, Narrative Elements and Literary Devices. We use the term Narrative Elements to describe aspects of storytelling. The term Literary Devices refers to specific tools of language that can appear in any genre of writing.

Our Narrative Elements are setting, foreshadowing, and characterization. They apply to most texts that tell a story, fiction or nonfiction, and they tend to be closely linked to an overall narrative arc. Although we have not focused on them here, other elements of narrative include theme, plot, conflict, and point of view.

Our Literary Devices are alliteration, personification, simile, metaphor, allusion, irony, and parallel structure. These are some of the techniques authors use to convey meaning. There are many other literary devices, including understatement, hyperbole, and onomatopoeia.

If you want to learn more about the aspects of author's craft that we have not emphasized in this project, try doing some research online. The craft of writing offers endless opportunities for learning!